From PLOS ONE – In urban areas, precipitation and excess irrigation that falls on impermeable or semi-permeable surfaces, such as roofs or roads, can run off into nearby channels and waterways, carrying oils, heavy metals, soil, salts, and other pollutants with it. This water, commonly referred to as urban stormwater, has historically been managed to mitigate flooding and surface water pollution by developing street curb water collection and sewer systems that quickly route the water away from urban centers and address the pollutants generated by stormwater runoff [1]. Most recently, an additional shift is occurring within stormwater management: with growing pressure on water supplies, communities in California and the southwestern U.S. are expanding stormwater management to include investment in stormwater capture as a means of augmenting water supplies. These capture projects range from small-scale rainwater harvesting to large aquifer recharge projects, and can simultaneously mitigate flood risk, reduce water quality impairments, and provide additional water supplies. (more)